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  • Ethanol History

    History

    Ethanol has been used by humans since prehistory as the intoxicating ingredient in alcoholic beverages. Dried residues on 9000-year-old pottery found in China imply the use of alcoholic beverages even among Neolithic people.[1] Its isolation as a relatively pure compound was first achieved by Muslim chemists who developed the art of distillation during the Abbasid caliphate, the most notable of whom were Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber), Al-Kindi (Alkindus) and al-Razi (Rhazes). The writings attributed to Jabir ibn Hayyan (721-815) mention the flammable vapors of boiled wine. Al-Kindi (801-873) unambiguously described the distillation of wine.[2] Absolute ethanol was obtained in 1796 by Johann Tobias Lowitz, by filtering distilled ethanol through charcoal.

    Antoine Lavoisier described ethanol as a compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and in 1808, Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure determined ethanol's chemical formula.[3] Fifty years later Archibald Scott Couper published a structural formula for ethanol, which places ethanol among the first of chemical compounds to have its chemical structures determined.[4]

    Ethanol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    A government that robs Peter to pay Paul can always depend on the support of Paul.
    By: George Bernard Shaw

  • #2

    Chemistry

    From the 10th century to the present time, the origin of alchemy, the true authorship of the latin and Arabic alchemecal writings attributred to Jabir Ibn Hayyan.

    Jabir Ibn Hayyan (Geber), who flourished in Kufa about 776 A.D. is known as the father of modern chemistry and along with Zakariya Razi, stands as the greatest names in the annals of chemical science during mediaeval times. He got his education from Omayyad Prince Khalid Ibn Yazid Ibn Muawiyah and the celebrated Imam Jafar al-Sadiq. He worked on the assumption that metals like lead, tin and iron could be transformed into gold by mixing certain chemical substances.

    Al-Jabr Ibn Hayyan (d. 815) regarded as the father of chemistry, said: all matters can be traced to a simple, basic particle composed of a lightning-like charge and fire, which serves as the smallest indivisible unit of matter.

    He discovered as many as 19 elements and is credited with correct measurements of specific weights. He perfected chemical processes such as distillation, crystallization and sublimation.

    Ibn Hayyan was the first to distill vinegar into acetic acid. He introduced the relative solubility or insolubility of substance in solutions. He was the first to use glass tubes, tubes, and bottles on a large scale.

    He mastered the use of chemical purification processes: distillation, sublimation, precipitation. Along with al-Jaber, they were regarded the founders of Chemistry as an exact science.

    They created distillation and sublimation. They used alcohol in surgery and extracts of herbs.

    It is said that he manufactured a large quantity of gold with the help of that mysterious substance and two centuries later, when a street was rebuilt in Kufa a large piece of gold was unearthed from his laboratory.

    He laid great emphasis on the importance of experimentation in his research and hence he made great headway in chemical science, Western writers credit him with the discovery of several chemical compounds, which are not mentioned in his twenty-two extant Arabic works. According to Max Meyerhof: "His influence may be traced throughout the whole historic course of European alchemy and chemistry."

    He is credited, with the writing of 100 chemical works. "Nevertheless, the works to which his name was attached" says Hitti, "were after the 14th century, the most influential chemical treatises in both Europe and Asia." "He explained scientifically the two principal operations of chemistry, calcination and reduction, and registered a marked improvement in the methods of evaporation, sublimation, filtration, distillation and crystallization. ...


    To read on, click here.
    It seems as if one fails to conceive
    The meaning my name strives to achieve

    To a biological form you cannot relate-
    Because a reproductive cell is a gamete not gamate!

    It means to unite, -to become consolidated
    So without me in a.com, is there hope we'd be amalgamated?

    Comment


    • #3
      ah... i love alcohols

      they're so fun to react stuff with

      have you guys ever seen ethanol on fire? COOLEST THING EVER!!

      Comment


      • #4
        um... bent, why don you stay in your little organic chemistry bubble and doodle some SN2 reactions with -OH elimination in an acid-base redux reaction and draw each and every resonance structure that is possible for that ugly molecule!!
        It seems as if one fails to conceive
        The meaning my name strives to achieve

        To a biological form you cannot relate-
        Because a reproductive cell is a gamete not gamate!

        It means to unite, -to become consolidated
        So without me in a.com, is there hope we'd be amalgamated?

        Comment


        • #5
          gladly!!!!

          Comment


          • #6
            Tfee-

            i'll keep to my anatomical human figures and physiological drawings

            they're way more interesting than some stick figure octahedral decapentatheanalene.
            It seems as if one fails to conceive
            The meaning my name strives to achieve

            To a biological form you cannot relate-
            Because a reproductive cell is a gamete not gamate!

            It means to unite, -to become consolidated
            So without me in a.com, is there hope we'd be amalgamated?

            Comment


            • #7
              girl... my obsession w/ bio far surpasses yours cuz i've dug deep enough to love the reactions that keep us goin' ... u just love the things that the reactions take place in

              Comment


              • #8
                well, your convoluted reactions needs no attention since their insignificance of size would break a telescope lens!

                learning the delicate balance of the circulatory system in synergy with the respiratory system... the immune system with the endocrine system. the amazing functions of all those organs- each doing a more spectacular job than the other.

                The digestive system and the urinary system- detoxification.

                The reproductive system, very interesting and remarkable.

                what could be more enticing than to learn about a day's work of one white blood cell or the strategy of an army of B-cells and T-cells in battle with an antibody?

                or how one flexing of a muscle in your arm proper could produce a movement in your index finger.

                what you SEE, bent, is more interesting than what you can't see!

                hands on real specimens is more dynamic than paper doodling!
                It seems as if one fails to conceive
                The meaning my name strives to achieve

                To a biological form you cannot relate-
                Because a reproductive cell is a gamete not gamate!

                It means to unite, -to become consolidated
                So without me in a.com, is there hope we'd be amalgamated?

                Comment


                • #9
                  yeah but when you UNDERSTAND why what you see is doing what it does... then you appreciate it/love it more

                  it's like the difference between coloring a coloring book and painting a picture

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    habibty I UNDERSTAND what these organs do- *up in yo face*

                    getting down n dirty wid organ interaction is a lot more interesting and fun than getting down n dirty with ugly molecule interactions!
                    It seems as if one fails to conceive
                    The meaning my name strives to achieve

                    To a biological form you cannot relate-
                    Because a reproductive cell is a gamete not gamate!

                    It means to unite, -to become consolidated
                    So without me in a.com, is there hope we'd be amalgamated?

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      lak you don't GET it...

                      yeah, the heart pumps blood so give our body oxygen... but what about those calcium ions that are in the muscle fibers that get released and the chemical imbalance causes the muscle to contract?

                      or how about the oxygen bonding to the 4 irons in the hemoglobin... i guess since we don't see that it ain't important huh?

                      admit it - your nerdiness can't surpass mine

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        honey, when you fry your brain figuring out which side of the 4-D helical protein molecule in blood bonds to which side of the amino acid in hemoglobin which has to unravel to accept few O2 molecules to covalently bond to it's positive end... or worse, figuring out how a protein molecule is formed and used in the plasma membrane of your heart muscle cells as exosytosis channels accepting Ca molecules. The sides of the protein channel exposed to the non polar membrane, are different atoms compared to the inner side of the channel which is exposed to the polar environment.


                        .... biochemistry and organic chemistry are U-G-L-Y compared to the beauty of anatomical features.

                        look Bent, here's an x-ray of your husband! (the one to the left )
                        It seems as if one fails to conceive
                        The meaning my name strives to achieve

                        To a biological form you cannot relate-
                        Because a reproductive cell is a gamete not gamate!

                        It means to unite, -to become consolidated
                        So without me in a.com, is there hope we'd be amalgamated?

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          hey you can't use your degree against me iwleh! give me 8 more years and I'll blast you to antarctica with my fifty degrees

                          biochemistry and organic chemistry are what make anatomy (physiology is better) HOT! When you really know that much (all that fluff that you said (which I refuse to believe you actually remember, ms. wikipedia ) you get closer and closer to Allah (swt). Like you see exactly how it's all so perfect, detailed, delicate yet strong... and when you get that close to Godliness, you feel enlightened, light and filled with belief....

                          ...I'm TELLING you - biology (and everything it encompasses) is my heroine/crack/meth/weed/watever.... where I'm the "alcoholic" you're the "occaisional drinker"

                          (lol, please don't kill me )

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            WHAT?? Well let me tell you something missy undergrad- all that 'fluff' actually came from what I remember while studying and doing research projects in them ugly classes.

                            nothing came from wiki-butt.

                            you'll realize once you hit biochemistry, it'll hit you in YO FACE how detailed and convoluted the molecule-molecule interactions run.

                            now, let me go remove them burn pita breads from the oven, air out the house and turn off the fire alarm that went off just now...
                            It seems as if one fails to conceive
                            The meaning my name strives to achieve

                            To a biological form you cannot relate-
                            Because a reproductive cell is a gamete not gamate!

                            It means to unite, -to become consolidated
                            So without me in a.com, is there hope we'd be amalgamated?

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              LOL!!! mashaAllah 3alaiki shou sit bait

                              true, i haven't been assaulted by biochem yet - but i certainly got a HUGE dose of it in 2nd semester bio ... The only reason why I'm shying away from biochem is that I'll have to take p. chem to graduate... and that is what i call death

                              yallah, i'm off to my o.chem study session

                              Comment

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